SEMlac reports

SEMlac reports (334)

Argentina: We feminists have no choice but to wage our own battles

By Norma Loto

Buenos Aires, January (SEMlac). – The book Voces del Feminismo Rebelde (Voices of

Rebellious Feminism) contains the life experiences of important feminists like Diana Maffía,

Claudia Korol, and Liliana Daunes.

Its author, Agustina Lanza, is a 21-year-old journalist who managed not only to get the

testimonies of outstanding women, but also interview family members of those who are gone.

Transvestite activist Diana Sacayán was murdered in October 2015, and Lanza interviewed her

brother Say. Feminist activist Micaela García was killed in April 2017, and Lanza got the

testimony of her friend Carla.

The book gathers their voices together and disseminates their life experiences applying a

pedagogical approach, including feminist Romina Ferrer’s illustrations.

SEMlac spoke with Lanza not only about her book, but also about feminism.

How did Voces del Feminismo Rebelde come to light?

The idea came up shortly after I wrote an article on feminism for Revista Sudestada last

February.

What was the impact of the international women’s strike on your book?

It is not by chance that we are now organizing a second international women’s strike to further

promote unity among all of us.

What do you think about government actions to fight male-chauvinistic

violence?

We continue to be abused. We are denied humanized delivery and comprehensive sex

education, although there are national laws that ensure such rights. We are also re-victimized

when we report cases of violence to the police.

There is a lot of misleading information. For example, María E. Vidal, governor of Buenos Aires,

 

made declarations about feminism without having even the definition very clear.

Our very President publicly said that we women like to have our backsides praised. We are tired

of repeating that male-chauvinistic violence does not only lead to beating and murder, but that it

also reproduces negative practices on a permanent basis.

Do you think the State has shown no real interest in protecting women?

In the book, I wrote that the women of my family simply served their parents, husbands and

children. Enough is enough.

While we demand the State to protect us, we have to develop effective protection tools

ourselves.

We feminists have no choice but to further wage our battles.

Voces del Feminismo Rebelde, Sudestada publishing house, Lomas de Zamora, Argentina,

2017

Mexico: Violence is seen as something normal in daily life

By Ana Osorio

Mexico, January (SEMlac)

“When we women are told that we should wait for our Prince Charming to arrive, we certainly do

not expect this to happen,” said María Cruz, miraculously alive after her husband Antonio

stabbed her at her workplace.

Her life dramatically changed on that day (November 24, 2017). Violence had been escalating

for four years, even after she got divorced from the father of her son. “Yes, I have” was her

answer to the question about having endured various forms of violence over marriage.

Trained as a mechanical engineer, Cruz was very knowledgeable about numbers and quality

certifications, but was unaware of the General Law on Access to Violence-Free Life

(LGAMVLV).

She did not know that shouts and threats were manifestations of psychological violence and that

there was another Law on Victims that ensures their economic and other rights.

She never imagined that she was, in fact, a member of the group of local women (11.1 per cent

of the total) in Veracruz suffering from family violence, according to the National Institute of

Statistics, Geography and Information (INEGI).

“He stabbed me with a kitchen knife I had bought” After a long fight with her husband, she

sought help. She had the opportunity to get divorced, at last. Her parents supported her all

along the legal process.

“It was only for my son that I put up with Antonio for years,” she told SEMlac. “On that terrible

day, I was at work. My boss came to tell me that somebody was looking for me at the entrance.

I thought it was an emergency and went there. I turned to stone when I saw him,” she recalled.

“He asked me to go with him to talk about our son and try to find a way out,” she added.

“He got upset, pulled at my sleeve, and stabbed me in the neck,” she said.

“My boss came and took the knife away from his hand. I was immediately taken to a hospital

and operated on,” she stressed.

Fortunately, she did not become one of the 177 women killed in Veracruz last year, just for the

sake of being women “It was not always a horror story”.

María and Antonio first met at the Technological Institute of Veracruz. They were studying there.

They happened to get along just fine and decided to get married and have a child.

“Our problems began when we had a difficult time financially and I had to sell sweets to support

our son while he would sleep until midday,” she recalled.

“My family and friends did identify the violence I was enduring, but I did not pay any attention to

them,” she emphasized.

“When one of his closest friends told me I was useless in front of Antonio, he simply agreed,”

she commented. Moving from love to fear She wanted to move away from him, but was afraid of

losing her son.

“His mother had many connections and ours is a corrupt country,” she noted.

“He put a plan together to accuse me of going out with men and failing to look after our son,”

she told SEMlac.

 

Even now that he is in prison, she is afraid of him escaping and coming to kill her. “My goal is to

overcome this situation and further support my child,” she added. “I want to close this cycle of

my life as soon as possible and prove that I can drive, learn foreign languages, and do many

things he told me I could never accomplish. I am only 24,” she concluded.

Dominican Republic: Women’s murders and family violence on the upswing


By Mercedes Alonso

 


Santo Domingo, November (SEMlac). – The nine-year-old daughter of Fidel Adón, a sergeant in the Dominican Navy, will never forget his shocking confession: “I have come to ask your forgiveness. I have to kill your mother and grandmother.”

Six months earlier, Aurelina Báez had decided to get divorced and move with her mother Juana because she had been living under constant abuse and threat.

Adón did not only kill the two women, but also hurt his brother-in-law and the one-year-old son of Aurelina’s sister. He hanged himself shortly afterwards.

The first half of 2017 closed with 50 women’s murders, as compared to 47 in the first six months of 2016, according to the Public Safety Observatory.

Local press reports indicated that 15 women have been killed in the last quarter of this year and that another five have been murdered in the last seven days. One of the murderers (Daniel Alfonso) is on the run.

Last October 28, Listín Diario (newspaper) published an article entitled Children’s sufferings after their parents commit crimes, including anger, depression, anxiety, isolation, low self-esteem, shame, and guilt.

Should a specialized police force be established?

The need to establish a specialized police force for violence-affected women was highlighted last October 27 by former district attorney José M. Hernández.

“When these women show up at police stations to report their cases, they are not well attended to,” he regretted.

“Police officers should be properly trained and sensitized,” he emphasized.

“We need to allocate adequate funding for education and awareness-raising actions,” he noted.

He recalled that two bills have been under review by the House and the Senate.

“They seek to help formulate prevention policies under a comprehensive care, sanction and eradication system that includes sexual and reproductive health and other issues that are contained in the criminal and civil codes,” he indicated.

He made the statement at a panel on policy proposals for gender violence prevention, which was sponsored by the Foundation for a Violence-Free Society and the Iberian-American University (UNIBE).

Speaking at the event, Foundation president Yadira Fondeur highlighted the need to promote equal rights for men and women, and foster knowledge generation, political will and commitment.

Estimates showed that over 60 per cent of victims had previously endured physical violence and 40 per cent, psychological violence.

“These acts have a very negative impact on boys and girls. In fact, 16 per cent of victims confessed that their children have also been abused by their sexual partners,” said PACAM president Soraya Lara.

One of the main recommendations of this local organization has to do with the provision of gender education since early childhood.

Mexico: A gender violence warning mechanism

By Sara Lovera

Mexico City, November (SEMlac Special). – “The implementation mechanism for Gender Violence Warning (GVW), which has been established in 12 states of the country, needs to be reformed to make it site-specific, sanction those failing to enforce it, properly identify the authorities in charge of taking action, and set reasonable timeframes. It will otherwise make no headway whatsoever,” said Laura Pedraza, a representative of Citizen Articulation for Equity and Development (ACED AC).

She told SEMlac that they are monitoring the situation of women’s murders in six states where GVW is already in place. She added that accountability also needs to be incorporated into these mechanisms.

“We have to make GVW binding not to rely on the will of local authorities only,” she stressed.

Monitoring actions, which are currently being supported by the Institute for Social Development (INDESOL), have revealed that there is an urgent need for process, outcome and impact indicators.

The effective protection of violence-affected women depends, to a large extent, on the mobilization of civil-society organizations.


Strengths and weaknesses

The ACED project entitled Gender-violence observatories in six states of the country (Mexico, Morelos, Michoacán, Veracruz, Nuevo León, and Chiapas) in the 2014-2016 period sought to systematize data collection.

The mechanism was established under the 2007 General Law for Women’s Access to Violence-Free Settings (LGAMVLV). Further details are available at https://goo.gl/4dXPMV and https://goo.gl/RNEbP5.

Its major strengths include the official recognition of the problem and the dissemination of information about its severity.

Its weaknesses have to do mainly with lack of political will.


Progress and setbacks

In Nuevo León, there are political will, resources available, and good coordination for the implementation of actions.

In Michoacán, however, there are not even effective regulations in place.

In Chiapas, there have been some recommendations for action, but the Center for the Protection of Women’s Rights (CMDCH AC) is no longer involved in monitoring because it is of the view that there is lack of coordination and information on gender, human rights, and cultural aspects.

The Center will continue to partner only with the Interinstitutional and Multidisciplinary Working Group (GIM).

In Veracruz, the situation is further compounded by the lack of resources.

In the state of Mexico, authorities agreed to support the GVW mechanism after the National Citizen Observatory on Women’s Murders (OCNF) allocated the resources required for these purposes.

There is still a long way to go, however. The perception that women are under constant threat is now stronger in this state than in Juarez itself.

In Morelos, representatives of the Independent Commission on Human Rights (CIDHM) feel that the measures adopted have not been entirely successful.

This situation contrasts sharply with a declaration that was made along these lines last April (see https://goo.gl/P3TxQ7).

How can the mechanism be improved to effectively address women’s murders in the country?

Specific actions should be implemented, including identifying those in charge and the role to be played by them.

• GVW should be binding and provide for a mechanism to sanction those failing to meet obligations.

• There is an urgent need for process, outcome and impact indicators to make progress visible.

• There is also a need to set reasonable timeframes for the implementation of recommendations.

• It is vital to fix such timeframes under a comprehensive, smooth process.

 

By Mercedes Alonso

Santo Domingo, August (SEMlac). - Many pregnant women in Haiti take the risk of crossing the border to give birth in Dominican hospitals.
This situation has been covered by the media and social networks. El Nacional newspaper said on August 25 that a military plan has been developed to keep these women under control.
Last May 17, El Nacional quoted Dr. Nelson Rodríguez, director of the National Health Service (SNS), as saying that the Dominican government is investing over five billion pesos (around 106 million dollars) on medical care for Haitian pregnant women who are brought into the country by mafia groups.
The Dominican Republic exhibits the fourth highest maternal mortality rate in the region (119 deaths every 100,000 live births), according to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). It is only preceded by Bolivia, Haiti, and San Kitts & Nevis.
Dominican Health Minister Altagracia Guzmán indicated that around 30 per cent of the women dying of delivery-related complications in the country are undocumented Haitians.
"They are mainly affected by high-blood pressure, hemorrhage and sepsis," she added.
"We have established a commission to identify the causes of death of these women and conduct medical and social audits," she said.
"Local authorities cannot leave them unattended, although this certainly increases national expenses," she concluded.

Health care, a universal right
While Rodríguez recognizes that health care is a universal right, the current situation is really difficult to manage.
"A couple of months ago, a hospital in Santiago, for example, had 10 Haitian pregnant women requesting hospitalization on the same day and at the same time," he recalled.
"The facility did not have the capacity to admit them and referred them to another hospital," he remarked.
"Around 90 per cent of deliveries at hospitals on the border involve Haitian women. We have asked the Armed Forces and the General Migration Division to further increase access control," he emphasized.

An old, controversial issue
On February 25, 2016, the former Brigadier General of the Army in the Dominican Republic told El Nacional that mafia groups were regularly bringing Haitian pregnant women and children to the country.
Last June 9, MPs and senators discussed the issue and announced that the Dominican government was spending 5.2 billion pesos (over 112 million dollars) a year on medical care for Haitian women.
Dominican Liberation Party senator Manuel Güíchardo indicated on August 24 that there is an urgent need for coordination between the national Migration Division and the Ministry of Public Health to address this situation.

Social networks
Facebook and Twitter have disseminated information on the daily crossing of buses packed with Haitian pregnant women. They plan to give birth at Dominican public hospitals with the hope that their children acquire Dominican nationality.
"Over 20 per cent of the budget of the Dominican Ministry of Public Health goes to medical care for undocumented people," the networks said.

By Mercedes Alonso

Santo Domingo, July (SEMlac). - A report of the Human Rights Unit at the Prosecutor's Office indicates that there were 69 cases of abuse against older people in the country between January and June 2017.
Ana V. Peralta (60) was raped; Evangelista Méndez (71) was raped and killed; Enriquillo Encarnación (90) and José B. Peralta (69) endured aggravated assault; Patricia Ramírez (74) is still in critical condition after attempted rape; María Pérez (70) and Juana Argot (59) were raped in their own houses; María Rosa (68) was murdered; and Isabel M. Llaverías (90) was raped and strangled.
Reporter Wanda Méndez had an article published by Listín Daily last July 3, urging to reflect on these and many other cases whose perpetrators have had detention orders issued against them.
Danissa Cruz, an attorney specializing in older people affairs and heading the Human Rights Unit at the Prosecutor's Office, told SEMlac that the National Council for Senior Citizens provides constant follow up to cases.

No public policies

Cruz indicated that family desertion is the main cause of vulnerability for older people in the country.
"Awareness-raising campaigns should be conducted under better protection policies for this population group," she stressed.
There are around one million people over 60 in the Dominican Republic today. By 2025, one every five will be an older person, according to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). 

Vulnerable women
Estimates show that there are 700 million people over 60 in the world today and that they will total two billion by 2050 (over 20 per cent of the global population).
In the Dominican Republic, around 80 per cent of those over 60 live in urban areas and are marginalized and/or underprivileged, according to a study disseminated over the Internet by Dr. Rosy Pereyra, executive director of the Institute for Grandparents at the International Longevity Center.
Ten per cent of older people live on their own, and life expectancy stands at 72 for women and 68 for men.

It is indispensable to promote inclusive policies
El Día newspaper published on October 2, 2015 an official declaration by UNFPA Executive Director Babatunde Osotimehin.
He asked: what can we do to make our cities more inclusive? And he answered: we can ensure that both young and old people are integrated into urban planning and that all their needs are duly taken into account.
"The inclusiveness of older people in urban areas is very much in line with the newly adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Nobody should be left behind," he stressed.
This is just a dream in the Dominican Republic, a country that exhibits the highest economic growth rate in the entire region.
Osotimehin urged political leaders and city planners to pay special attention to older people when developing housing, transportation and other basic social projects.

By Mercedes Alonso

Santo Domingo, July (SEMlac). - A report of the Human Rights Unit at the Prosecutor's Office indicates that there were 69 cases of abuse against older people in the country between January and June 2017.
Ana V. Peralta (60) was raped; Evangelista Méndez (71) was raped and killed; Enriquillo Encarnación (90) and José B. Peralta (69) endured aggravated assault; Patricia Ramírez (74) is still in critical condition after attempted rape; María Pérez (70) and Juana Argot (59) were raped in their own houses; María Rosa (68) was murdered; and Isabel M. Llaverías (90) was raped and strangled.
Reporter Wanda Méndez had an article published by Listín Daily last July 3, urging to reflect on these and many other cases whose perpetrators have had detention orders issued against them.
Danissa Cruz, an attorney specializing in older people affairs and heading the Human Rights Unit at the Prosecutor's Office, told SEMlac that the National Council for Senior Citizens provides constant follow up to cases.

No public policies

Cruz indicated that family desertion is the main cause of vulnerability for older people in the country.
"Awareness-raising campaigns should be conducted under better protection policies for this population group," she stressed.
There are around one million people over 60 in the Dominican Republic today. By 2025, one every five will be an older person, according to the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). 

Vulnerable women
Estimates show that there are 700 million people over 60 in the world today and that they will total two billion by 2050 (over 20 per cent of the global population).
In the Dominican Republic, around 80 per cent of those over 60 live in urban areas and are marginalized and/or underprivileged, according to a study disseminated over the Internet by Dr. Rosy Pereyra, executive director of the Institute for Grandparents at the International Longevity Center.
Ten per cent of older people live on their own, and life expectancy stands at 72 for women and 68 for men.

It is indispensable to promote inclusive policies
El Día newspaper published on October 2, 2015 an official declaration by UNFPA Executive Director Babatunde Osotimehin.
He asked: what can we do to make our cities more inclusive? And he answered: we can ensure that both young and old people are integrated into urban planning and that all their needs are duly taken into account.
"The inclusiveness of older people in urban areas is very much in line with the newly adopted 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Nobody should be left behind," he stressed.
This is just a dream in the Dominican Republic, a country that exhibits the highest economic growth rate in the entire region.
Osotimehin urged political leaders and city planners to pay special attention to older people when developing housing, transportation and other basic social projects.

By Gabriela Ramírez

Mexico, July (SEMlac). - The Justice for Women Centers (CEJUMs) have been established under a major public policy seeking to combat gender violence and provide victims with care.
These facilities, however, lack legal and institutional support, and effective operational programs and staff regulations.
They were created in 2010 by the Ministry of the Interior's National Commission to Prevent and Eradicate Violence against Women (CONAVIM). There are 31 centers currently operating in 21 states of the Republic.
According to the CONAVIM website, the idea is to follow the international recommendations formulated, for example, by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. 
Justice for Women (NGO) recently prepared a report on the current condition of these centers and identified three local authorities in charge of their operation: Governor's Offices (20), Prosecutor's Offices (8), and Legislative Power (1). They have been included, however, in basic rather than federal laws.
Most centers are under the umbrella of Prosecutor's Offices (13), Co-Prosecutors' Offices (8), Women's Secretariats (4), the Ministry of the Interior (3), the Executive Commissions for Victim Care (2), and the Secretariat for Public Safety (1).
For instance, the center in Pachuca (Hidalgo), which is directly under the umbrella of the Ministry of the Interior, finds it easier to get involved in intersectoral coordination and decision-making.
The report also indicated that there are no standardized goals, membership criteria, and roles for all centers.
"Some articles of association even contain gender stereotypes," it added.
Out of 31 centers, 11 have no eligibility criteria for directors and those who have them do not include training and/or experience in key issues like gender, human rights, and specialized victim care.
Over 97 per cent of the center's staff in Mexico City comes from other units, while 100 per cent of the staff in Chiapas works full-time for the center.
A total of 18 facilities have staff evaluation mechanisms in place, but they have not always been designed from a gender perspective and a truly comprehensive approach to violence.
The National Commission to Prevent and Eradicate Violence against Women (CONAVIM) is in charge of allocating resources to the centers under established guidelines.
The study has revealed, however, that resource allocation is not in keeping with specific needs and socio-demographic characteristics.
"The center in Zacatecas had budget allocations available in 2014, but started up operations in 2016," it added.
Only 11 centers have developed annual operational programs; six are putting them together now; four have no programs in the making; and seven have provided no information on this matter.
The articles of association should include establishing a secretariat to collaborate and coordinate actions with other secretariats for the provision of interdisciplinary services.
The secretariats should be decentralized, have legal personality, capital and budget of their own, and discourage gender stereotypes.
The idea is also to set up transparency and accounting mechanisms for smooth resource implementation.
After the report was developed, five civil organizations (Justice for Women, Kookay Alternative Social Science, Consortium for Parliamentary Dialogue and Equity in Oaxaca, Rosario Castellanos Women's Study Center in Oaxaca, and No More Murders in Yucatan) agreed to implement a pilot project for public auditing through an observatory for all CEJUMs. It was launched last July 11 in the capital city.
"This will make it possible to provide violence victims with better care," said Adelaida Salas, leader of No More Murders.
Ximena Avellaneda, director of GesMujer in Oaxaca, indicated that there have been 73 women's murders since last December, when a new six-year term began for the state government.
"We do not know how many of these murders are actually being investigated," she regretted.
"In Oaxaca, a second center has not started up operations in the municipality of Juchitán due to CONAVIM budget cuts. This is really contradictory because the idea should be to prioritize the prevention of violence against women," she concluded.

By Gabriela Ramírez

Mexico, July (SEMlac). - The Justice for Women Centers (CEJUMs) have been established under a major public policy seeking to combat gender violence and provide victims with care.
These facilities, however, lack legal and institutional support, and effective operational programs and staff regulations.
They were created in 2010 by the Ministry of the Interior's National Commission to Prevent and Eradicate Violence against Women (CONAVIM). There are 31 centers currently operating in 21 states of the Republic.
According to the CONAVIM website, the idea is to follow the international recommendations formulated, for example, by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights. 
Justice for Women (NGO) recently prepared a report on the current condition of these centers and identified three local authorities in charge of their operation: Governor's Offices (20), Prosecutor's Offices (8), and Legislative Power (1). They have been included, however, in basic rather than federal laws.
Most centers are under the umbrella of Prosecutor's Offices (13), Co-Prosecutors' Offices (8), Women's Secretariats (4), the Ministry of the Interior (3), the Executive Commissions for Victim Care (2), and the Secretariat for Public Safety (1).
For instance, the center in Pachuca (Hidalgo), which is directly under the umbrella of the Ministry of the Interior, finds it easier to get involved in intersectoral coordination and decision-making.
The report also indicated that there are no standardized goals, membership criteria, and roles for all centers.
"Some articles of association even contain gender stereotypes," it added.
Out of 31 centers, 11 have no eligibility criteria for directors and those who have them do not include training and/or experience in key issues like gender, human rights, and specialized victim care.
Over 97 per cent of the center's staff in Mexico City comes from other units, while 100 per cent of the staff in Chiapas works full-time for the center.
A total of 18 facilities have staff evaluation mechanisms in place, but they have not always been designed from a gender perspective and a truly comprehensive approach to violence.
The National Commission to Prevent and Eradicate Violence against Women (CONAVIM) is in charge of allocating resources to the centers under established guidelines.
The study has revealed, however, that resource allocation is not in keeping with specific needs and socio-demographic characteristics.
"The center in Zacatecas had budget allocations available in 2014, but started up operations in 2016," it added.
Only 11 centers have developed annual operational programs; six are putting them together now; four have no programs in the making; and seven have provided no information on this matter.
The articles of association should include establishing a secretariat to collaborate and coordinate actions with other secretariats for the provision of interdisciplinary services.
The secretariats should be decentralized, have legal personality, capital and budget of their own, and discourage gender stereotypes.
The idea is also to set up transparency and accounting mechanisms for smooth resource implementation.
After the report was developed, five civil organizations (Justice for Women, Kookay Alternative Social Science, Consortium for Parliamentary Dialogue and Equity in Oaxaca, Rosario Castellanos Women's Study Center in Oaxaca, and No More Murders in Yucatan) agreed to implement a pilot project for public auditing through an observatory for all CEJUMs. It was launched last July 11 in the capital city.
"This will make it possible to provide violence victims with better care," said Adelaida Salas, leader of No More Murders.
Ximena Avellaneda, director of GesMujer in Oaxaca, indicated that there have been 73 women's murders since last December, when a new six-year term began for the state government.
"We do not know how many of these murders are actually being investigated," she regretted.
"In Oaxaca, a second center has not started up operations in the municipality of Juchitán due to CONAVIM budget cuts. This is really contradictory because the idea should be to prioritize the prevention of violence against women," she concluded.

By Gabriela Ramírez

Mexico, May (SEMlac). - A total of 44 women, including activists and journalists, have been killed since 2010, according to the National Network of Human Rights Defenders.
The most recent case was that of Miriam Rodríguez, who was riddled with bullets in her home last May 10.
This situation has sparked a wide range of reactions among civil society and international organizations. 
A Network representative said that Chihuahua is the Mexican state with the highest number of attacks on women defenders. In 2010, Josefina Reyes, Marisela Escobedo, María I. Cordero, María M. Reyes and Luisa Ornelas were killed.
In 2011, Susana Chávez was also killed. She had been reporting cases of missing women in Juarez and women's murders on the border. In 2017, Miroslava Breach got killed and Patricia Mayorga had to seek asylum in the United States.
In Guerrero, the list of women's murders includes María E. Hernández (2010), Isabel Ayala and Reyna Ayala (2011), Juventina Villa and Fabiola Osorio (2012), Rocío Mesino and Ana L. Gatica (2013), and Norma A. Bruno (2015).
"There other states where the number of women's murders has been increasing: Oaxaca, Sinaloa, Michoacán, Puebla, Veracruz, Hidalgo, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, the state of Mexico and Mexico City," the Network representative stressed.

Murdered mothers
Marisela Escobedo was shot dead in Chihuahua on December 16, 2010, at the entrance to the Government Palace, after a sit-in to demand justice for her daughter, who was killed by her sexual partner Sergio R. Barraza.
He was first found not guilty, but was later sentenced to 50 years in prison. The truth is that he has not been taken to jail yet.
Sandra L. Hernández was murdered in Sinaloa on May 12, 2014. A man named Jesús F. Valenzuela shot her dead and was found not guilty a year later.
She had for two years looked for her son Edgar García, who had been kidnapped while working as a messenger for the Prosecutor-General's Office in the city.
Cornelia San Juan died in the state of Mexico on January 15, 2016. She had been looking for her son Oswaldo Espejel since 2012, when he was kidnapped. Cornelia's murderer was caught, but there has been no news about Oswaldo.
Emma G. Molina was killed on March 27, 2017. She had sought to find her three children who had been kidnapped by their own father Alberto Medina, a member of the Institutional Revolutionary Party in Tabasco. Two men slit her throat at the entrance door to her house. Her mother Ligia Canto has decided to take action and demand justice.
Miriam Rodríguez was shot dead in her house last May 10. She had tried to find her daughter Karen Alejandra, who had gone missing in 2012. She found her remains in a common grave and managed to put her murderers in jail. She was a founding member of Colectivo Desaparecidos de Tamaulipas (an organization for missing people in Tamaulipas).
A report of the National Human Rights Commission indicated that a total of 29,903 people had gone missing between 2007 and 2013.
A total of 855 illegal graves had been discovered in this period, the report added.
Around 82 per cent of the cases of disappearances have been seen in 11 states, mainly in Tamaulipas (5,563 cases) and the state of Mexico (2,984 cases).
The New York Times recently published an interview with local women who have helped find and exhume 263 bodies from a grave in Veracruz.

The world speaks up
After the recent murder of Mirian Rodríguez, European Union (EU) Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Federica Mogherini highlighted the need to conduct thorough, independent and comprehensive investigations to bring the perpetrators to justice.
"Authorities should also ensure the adoption of the preventive measures necessary for the effective protection of the human rights of defenders and journalists," she added.
Amnesty International (AI) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights in Mexico have demanded prompt clarification of Rodríguez' case.
They have also asked the Mexican government to guarantee the effective protection of all victims and their families.

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