Intergenerational conflicts can generate family violence.
Yaíma Barcárcel, a 38-year-old anesthesiologist living in the capital city, blames her mother-in-law for her divorce six years ago.
"I had just started working after graduation at a hospital in downtown Havana, quite far from where we were living. I got back home very late at night and always found my mother-in-law, who lived somewhere else, making dinner for my husband Mario. "He can't eat so late," she usually said.
"I discussed this issue with him on several occasions and he always told me I was right, but he never dared to tell her anything, fearing to hurt her," she indicated.
Mirta Yáñez, Caridad Atencio, and Nara Mansur have just been given the 2010 Annual Literary Critique Award.
Instituted by the Cuban Book Institute, the award was granted to seven out of 121 nominees.
Sangra por la herida (Bleeding Wound) was written by Yáñez, a prizewinning poetess, essayist, journalist and storyteller.
El libro de los sentidos (The Book of Senses) is a bold description of Atencio's life, as colleague Charo Guerra put it. She is a poetess and essayist.
Most Latin American migrants are women. Over two million women have left their countries of origin (1.6 million for the United States and 400,000 for other nations) in the last couple of years.
Around 150,000 women have left Mexico for the U.S. only in the 2006-2011 period. Along with Peruvians, Colombians, Bolivians and Ecuadorians, these women are working mainly as babysitters and caregivers in countries like Spain, Chile and Venezuela.
More than five million Mexican women are estimated to have settled down in the U.S. Most of them stay there for good and just a few get back home, leaving their children there.
Migrant women are desperately looking for better living and working conditions, and are often employed under terrible conditions or are poorly paid at sweatshops, hospitals, hotels and restaurants.
Around 2,000 indigenous people are involved in a 21-day, 600-kilometer-long March for Mother Earth.
Speaking at a Global Forum on Life and Environmental Justice in Cancun (Mexico) last December, Bolivian President Evo Morales urged to redress the current world environmental situation to save the planet.
He has been promoting, however, the construction of a road through indigenous land and a national park (Isidoro Sécure). This area is known as TIPNIS.
The latest population census in 2001 showed that there were 12,000 people living there. The park covers 1.2 million hectares and provides habitat to 108 mammal, 400 bird, 53 amphibian, 127 invertebrate, and 3,000 flora species.
Associating gender violence only with actions against women can help conceal other forms of abuse.
Social psychologists Mareelen Díaz and Yohanka Valdés raised this issue at a Meeting on Family, Gender and Equity held last September 16, at the National Psychological and Sociological Research Center (CIPS) in Havana.
The event was sponsored by the Oscar A. Romero (OAR) Reflection Group, a Christian organization that has been fighting violence and promoting a culture of peace for over 25 years.
"The idea has been to identify acts of gender inequality and violence under local conditions," Valdés indicated.
Men for Diversity (MxD), a group that has been defending the rights of people of all sexual orientations in Cuba, has asked local authorities to review and pass the new Family Code without further delay.
The bill in question includes several amendments to the Code that has been in force since 1975 and recommends legal recognition of same-sex unions.
A Ministry of Justice report recently indicated that the date for such a review by parliament has not been finalized.
A representative of MxD said that the Federation of Cuban Women, which has been promoting the bill along with the National Association of Cuban Jurists, has already examined, adopted and submitted the bill to the Ministry of Justice, which is expected to present the final version to parliament.
While just a few people on the island publicly admit being racist, social prejudices and discriminatory attitudes continue to be the rule these days.
Jokes and proverbs are still being used to discriminate against the so-called people of color.
All these issues were raised and carefully reviewed at a Meeting on Science, Race and Society, which was held last September 7 at the Dulce M. Loynaz Cultural Center in Havana.
"When you cannot directly make somebody feel inferior, you crack a joke about that person," said Zuleika Romay, director of the Cuban Book Institute and an experienced communication expert.
Audiovisual language can provide an effective means to raise public awareness of gender equity.
The Cuba-based Latin American Network on Masculinity has been using over 70 documentary films and videos for this purpose and launched a multimedia (material) along these lines last July.
Dayron Oliva, a history professor at the College of Art who was involved in the multimedia development, said that the idea was to sensitize young people to gender issues and to help remove inequity and violence.
General Network coordinator Julio C. González strongly favors the idea of using videos and the Internet to disseminate gender information.
Eva González, a Spanish actress who has been living in Cuba for over 18 years, has just staged Salome, a play based on Oscar Wilde's literary piece, which deals with a woman's conflicts, doubts and emotions. "It is really thought-provoking," she said. "It is about love and life," she added.
"While Salome is mythical and timeless, Candela -another character she plays- is a devoted, contradictory, transparent, sentimental woman of her time," she indicated.
"I identify with Candela because I have also experienced loneliness and maladjustment myself," she stressed.
"This character has taught me that we should be neither too unyielding nor too tolerant. We should always try to find the right balance between these two attitudes," she told SEMlac.
Good information and high self-esteem are indispensable for the LGBT community to deal with social rejection and discrimination on the island.
A research work that was recently conducted in the central province of Cienfuegos, 250 kilometers east of Havana, has so corroborated.
In his master's on sexual diversity in Cienfuegos, psychologist Alain Darcout indicated that both heterosexual and non-heterosexual people have misconceptions about sexual diversity and gender identities.
Carried out in several municipalities of the province between September 2010 and March 2011, the research work included a survey to over 50 people (20 heterosexual teenagers, youngsters and adults of both sexes, and 30 lesbians, gays, bisexuals and transvestites).